Day 1 :
Apton Biosystems Inc., USA
Time : 09:00 - 10:00
Manohar R Furtado has completed his PhD in Protein Biochemistry from Pune Universsity and completed Post-Doctoral Training at Northwestern University in Virology. He served on the Faculty at Northwestern in the Department of Pathology and conducted Basic Research in Oncolgy & Infectious Diseases. He joined Applied Biosystems in 2000 and worked there as the Vice Presisident, R&D for Molecular Medicine & Applied Markets. He was a Consultant for Bio-Rad, ACD, Sample 6, DxNow and Apton Biosystems. He was on the National Biodefense Science Board at DHHS (2011-2015). He is currently the CSO and CRO at Apton. He is on the Board of LexaGene.
Apton Biosystems has built a versatile high-speed, affordable, imaging system with the ability to detect single fluorophores on labeled macromolecules (DNA, RNA and protein) on a surface with super resolution capability. The system was used for DNA sequencing using commercial sequencing by synthesis reagents dNTPs and Therminator X enzyme and for molecule detection using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide and antibogy probes. Target molecules or clusters with incorporated labeled dNTPs or bound by probes or have are imaged and countedWe have sequenced PCR amplified human gene targets, Phage X174 genome, the E. coli genome human exomes and the human genome. We will present a cost validated execution plan to reduce the sequencing costs to $ 10 per human genome.. NSCLC cell lines were cultured and untreated or treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We detected protein phosphorylation changes for EGFR, ERK, MET and MEK, using just 0.5 to 2 cell equivalents of protein lysate containing sub pM levels of protein. We also detected indels in EGFR exon 19 and point mutations in L858R, T790M in EGFR and V600E in BRAF, at 0.5% minor component levels, by using an oligonucleotide ligation assay off-chip and then attaching the ligated product to the surface. mRNA levels and fusion mRNAs were detected using 10-20 cell equivalents of RNA. The system will enable comprehensive analysis of cancer related pathways from a few cells to help decipher changes in cellular pathways in response to mutations and consequently help with selection of efficacious drugs that are individual specific. We believe this system will revolutionize the practice of medicine by enabling affordable analysis of biological samples, cellular mutations and pathways.
Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam Education & Research Centre, India
Time : 10:00 - 11:00
Pravin D Potdar has completed his PhD from Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai in 1991. He has been working in the field of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer. He has retired from Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai as a Head, Department of Molecular Medicine& Biology, after servicing there for 12years. He has established Molecular Diagnostics & Stem cell Research Laboratories at Jaslok and carried out various research Program in the field of Cancer Genetics and developed innovated technologies which can help to diagnose and treat various cancers. He has published 81 papers in national and international journals. He is an Editorial Board of various journals. He is a recipient of National Cancer Institute, USA award and also holds Faculty position at M D Anderson Cancer Centre; Houston TX, USA, He is currently working at Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Research Institute, India.
Cancer is among the leading cause of death all over the world. Every year millions of cancer patients are enrolled for cancer treatment in which only few patients survive with present cancer therapy. Since last two decades, the revolution has occurred in health care industries. Completion of human genome project by Dr. Francis Collins has introduced the molecular profiling of individual cancer patient to diagnose cancer more precisely than any other method. It has also allowed clinicians to prescribe appropriate therapies which match with cancer patient’s own profile. This new form of medicine is termed as a personalized medicine. Worldwide, personalized medicine programs have focused on analysis of genetic profile of cancer patients by using whole genome sequencing of cancer patients to get precise advice for cancer treatment. However, it is understood that the outcome of cancer treatment is not determined only by the variation in the genetic makeup of a tumor but also inter patient variations in pharmacokinetics which may give rise to drug resistant. Therefore, personalized medicine requires not only to characterize tumor cells but also to see the individualized drug resistant effect on these patients. Protein kinase activity is significantly increased in most of cancers and thus the protein kinase inhibitors play very important role in treatment of various cancers. 17 small molecules and 4 antibodies are approved as protein kinase inhibitors, as cancer therapeutic drugs. These drugs interact with specific site of cancer cells and bring out significant inhibition of cancer cell growth. Most of these drugs are focused on only 8 common linkage targets i.e. VEGF or VEGFR, PI3K, EGFR2 (HER2), mTOR, EGFR, MET, PDGF or PDGFR and KIT. Presently HER2 antibody Trastuzumab is used in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Similarly, BCR-ABL1 inhibitor Imatinib is used in chronic myeloid leukaemia. Whereas, Gefitinib and Erlotinib which are EGFR kinase inhibitors are used in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib is used in melanoma and the dual ALK-MET inhibitor Crizotinib is used in NSCLC. Kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are very much dependent on predictive biomarkers expressed on cancer patient’s cells. Thus the presence or absence of these predictive markers is directly linked to the response rates of particular targeted therapies with small-molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies. Similarly, latest innovation in analysis of liquid biopsy is also given a non-invasive platform for doing molecular profiling of cancer patients without taking tissue biopsy. Next-generation sequencing potentiates the sequencing of circulating tumor cells or cell-free DNA in liquid biopsies of cancer patients which helps in diagnosis and therapy of cancer. So over all, we are confident that in near future we can be able to implement personalized medicine treatment to counteract with the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of cancer and its drug resistance to cure the cancer.